The first quarter of the 19th century was dominated by Romantic poetry.
For centuries, Russia has straddled both Europe and Asia, two continents that are divided by the Ural Mountains. In a sense, there are two Russian homelands.
One is the present-day state of Russia, which coincides with territory inhabited by ethnic Russians. Americans who identify their heritage as Russian include first-generation immigrants and their descendants who came from Russia within its present-day border; people from the Baltic countries, Belarus, and Ukraine who have identified themselves as Russians; East Slavs from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire who have identified themselves as Russians once in the United States; and Jews from the Western regions of the former Russian Empire and the Soviet Union who, aside from their religious background, identify themselves as Russians.
Much of European Russia west of the Urals was part of a medieval state known as Kievan Rus', which existed from the late ninth century to the thirteenth century. During the Kievan period, Orthodox Christianity reached Russia and that religion remained intimately connected with whatever state or culture developed on Russian territory until the twentieth century.
It was in a northern part of Kievan Rus', the Duchy of Muscovy, that the birth of a specifically Russian state can be found.
The state-building process began in the late thirteenth century, when the Duchy of Muscovy began to consolidate its power and expand its territory. The expansion proved to be phenomenal. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the growing state included lands along the Baltic Sea, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, and large parts of Poland.
The country's borders also moved beyond the Ural Mountains into Siberia, a vast land whose annexation together with Central Asia the Caucasus region were completed in the nineteenth century.
As the country grew, it also changed its name from the Duchy to the Tsardom of Muscovy and in it became the Russian Empire. The grand dukes became the tsars of Muscovy, who in turn became emperors of the Russian Empire. Although the rulers of the empire were formally called emperors imperatorthey were still popularly referred to as tsars or tsarinas.
In Novembera second revolution took place, led by the Bolsheviks and headed by a revolutionary named Vladimir Lenin. The Bolshevik Revolution was opposed by a significant portion of the population, and the result was a Civil War that began in and lasted until early In the end, the Bolsheviks were victorious, and in late they created a new state, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union consisted of several national republics, the largest of which was called Russia. Beyond the Russian republic many inhabitants, especially in the western regions of the Soviet Union, continued to identify themselves as Russians.
The new Soviet state proclaimed the establishment of Communism worldwide as its goal. It intended to achieve that goal by promoting Bolshevik-style revolutions abroad. Since many countries feared such revolutions, they refused to recognize Bolshevik rule.
Thus, the Soviet Union was isolated from the rest of the world community for nearly 20 years. Following the Allied victory, the Soviets emerged alongside the United States as one of the two most powerful countries in the world.
For nearly the next half-century, the world was divided between two camps: By the s, the centralized economic and political system of the Soviet Union was unable to function effectively.
Ina new communist leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, tried desperately to reform the system but failed.
He did set in motion, however, a new revolution, bringing such enormous changes that by late the Soviet Union disappeared as a country. In its place, each of the former Soviet republics became an independent country, and among the new countries was Russia.
During the eighteenth century, Russian traders and missionaries crossing Siberia reached Alaska, which became a colony of the Russian Empire.
By the first permanent Russian settlement was founded on Kodiak, a large island off the Alaskan coast. In the Russian government sold Alaska to the United States, and most Russians in Alaska whose numbers never exceeded returned home.
Russian influence persisted in Alaska, however, in the form of the Orthodox Church, which succeeded in converting as many as 12, of the native Inuit and Aleut people. Large-scale emigration from Russia to the United States only began in the late nineteenth century.
Since that time, four distinct periods of immigration can be identified: The reasons for emigration included economic hardship, political repression, religious discrimination, or a combination of those factors.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from tranceformingnlp.com “IRAN HAS NO NUCLEAR WEAPONS,” Prime Minister Vladimir Putin told his fellow Russians during his annual Question-and-Answer session on December 3, Only a few days before Putin’s nationwide address, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, with threats from Israel on Iran’s nuclear sites.
Crimean War; Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe and the Russo-Turkish wars: Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol ().
Estonia–Russia relations (Российско-эстонские отношения, Estonian: Eesti-Vene suhted) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Estonia and Russia. Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Estonia and the Russian SFSR were established on 2 February , when Bolshevist Russia recognized de jure the independence of the Republic of Estonia, and renounced in.
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, a man who greatly increased Russia’s power and prestige, was known for being vindictive, cruel, and paranoid. He was the first Russian monarch who adopted Tsar of All Russia as his title.
He came on the throne at the age of 16, in , and his nearly four-decades-long. Russian literature, the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century.
The most celebrated period of Russian literature was the 19th century, which produced, in a remarkably short period, some of the indisputable.