January 27, by Brian Mcneill, Virginia Commonwealth University A new article co-authored by a Virginia Commonwealth University professor suggests that pornography has become a primary source of sexual education, and has a tangible influence on the sex lives of young adults. The researchers, including Jennifer Johnson, Ph.
Some examples of feminist analysis on sexual violence Taken from Mariangela Di Domenico, La violence faite aux femmes: These feminists were the first to analyze sexual violence against women from a socio-political perspective.
They alerted the public to a problem which, prior to their work, had received scant attention. What little information there had been, was presented through the lens of psycho-biological determinism.
Due to the theoretical nature and complexity of the analysis found in the feminist literature, we have had to limit ourselves to the key events. Also, we have chosen to focus on certain authors we judged to be particularly significant.
Because feminism is a practice as well as a theory, it is clear that a study of the writing on its own will provide only An analysis of violence and pornography glimpse of the scope and richness of the analysis developed by this movement.
This paper is divided into sections that group authors representing the major currents of feminist analysis of male violence. During the 70s, for example, writers accorded a predominant role to socio-political structures; since the 80s, a more global vision has emerged, in which sexuality, the construction of heterosexuality and the social control of women constitute the main elements.
Feminist analysis based on a study of socio-political structures Generally speaking, analysis produced by feminists during the 70s—a period that has come to be known as the second wave of feminism—accorded little place to the direct as opposed to cultural means of oppressing women.
The use of force was not as a rule understood as a direct means of coercion employed by men as a group to dominate and oppress women as a group. The source of male power and domination over women was located rather in the socio-economic and ideological structures of modern capitalism.
According to Millet ,1 Mitchell 2 and Rowbotham ,3 for example, it is economic and political institutions such as the family, marriage, military-industrial complex, technology, finance and universities that ensure male domination over women. In their view, since these structures guarantee and legitimize the unequal power relations between men and women, men would have little need to resort to physical violence, coercion and repression to subordinate women.
Her work, often somewhat tinged with biological determinism, suggests that physical force is a structuring element in the antagonistic relations between men and women.
Millet, in her book, Sexual Politicsmoreover, also states that in the end, all power resides in the use of force. This initial theoretical work on the legitimizing of violence in patriarchal society was followed closely by the work of authors such as Griffin ,6 Brownmiller ,7 and Daly 8 who launched the debate on sexual violence.
The first articles on rape appeared in feminist publications in the 70s, and rape, at least in the United States, became the feminist issue of the day. First, it showed that the construction of femininity makes women fragile and vulnerable, and consequently, less able to defend themselves from attack.
It is clear, according to the author of this important article, that rape must not be understood as a sexual act, but as an act of domination over women.
Rape is perhaps the most efficient form of social exclusion. Important contributions to the discussion were subsequently made by Brownmiller 10 in the United States and Clark and Lewis 11 in Canada, who elaborated on the various aspects of this crime.
Confronted with a virtual absence of writing on the subject, Brownmiller researched for four years to come up with a description of rape, including its existence in law and culture. The study also covers the role of rape in literature, the media and in wartime.
Brownmiller demonstrated that this crime is more than an individual act committed by one man against one woman; it is a powerful mechanism of male control over women. She defined rape as an exercise of power and intimidation through which men maintain women in a state of fear.
Rape is revealed as having a teaching function: Later on, in Canada and the United States, a key element of feminist demands would be to include a legal definition of consent in legislation concerning sexual assault.
At that period Brownmiller had already proposed the following definition: A sexual invasion of the body by force, an incursion into the private, personal inner space without consent. Not surprisingly, it was controversial. The most significant criticisms13 accused Brownmiller of over generalization and a lack of historical perspective.
In portraying rape as transcending cultures and history, they considered Brownmiller to be relying on essentialist arguments rather on the material conditions of social relations.
The Metaethics of Radical Feminism 15 led many to perceive her as a pivotal theoretician at the end of the 70s and the beginning of the 80s.
She analyzed sadomasochistic rituals and other forms of male violence, concluding that, fundamentally, all these acts—regardless of the diversity of form—were different facets of male power, their sole aim being the subjection of women.
Throughout the decade of the 70s, feminist theoreticians sought to understand patriarchy in all its complex dimensions. For this current of feminism,16 the solution to inequality lay in a transformation of mentality where personal qualities such as courage, self-affirmation and new mental attitudes would play a decisive role.
Characterized as idealistic, the liberal approach was criticized17 for not dealing with the material constraints inherent in male-female relations.
Taken as a whole, the investigations of feminists in this area, together with the analysis of socio-economic structures, enabled them to reveal the diverse facets of patriarchal social organization.Jackson Katz is the creator, lead writer and narrator of the groundbreaking and award-winning Tough Guise documentary series about American manhood, media and violence, produced by the Massachusetts-based Media Education Foundation.
Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the .
Pornography is now the most prominent sexuality educator for many young people. Most young people discover porn well before they encounter sex – perhaps even before they have kissed or held a partner.
May 29, · "I think that is a big part" of the spike in such attacks, Rep. Diane Black asserts. An analysis of hard-core porn movies shows that violence has become fatal and brutal since the s (Allison &Wrightson, ).
This shows that pornography is a form of violence against women. Most of the women used in the production of some of the porn movies we have today were actually forced to participate in them. Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, [Carolyn Bronstein] on tranceformingnlp.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Pornography catapulted to the forefront of the American women's movement in the s, singled out by some leading feminists as a key agent of female oppression and celebrated by others as an essential ingredient of sexual liberation.