Additionally, the text has been updated to include an entirely new chapter on Clinical Practice, which covers the roles of mental health professionals, service provision, and the role and training of clinical psychologists, including their key capabilities and competences. New material has been added on topics such as: In additional, the most recent research on genetics, epigenetics and neuroscience has been included, along with some explanatory sections in chapter 1 that describe these types of explanation to the reader.
Abnormal Psychology By Saul McLeodupdated August 05, Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society. The definition of the word abnormal is simple enough but applying this to psychology poses a complex problem: The concept of abnormality is imprecise and difficult to define.
Examples of abnormality can take many different forms and involve different features, so that, what at first sight seem quite reasonable definitions, turns out to be quite problematical.
Definitions of Abnormality Statistical Infrequency Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual. With this definition it is necessary to be clear about how rare a trait or behavior needs to be before we class it as abnormal.
For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. The statistical approach helps to address what is meant by normal in a statistical context.
It helps us make cut — off points in terms of diagnosis. However, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable Chapter 3 abnormal psychology. For example, obesity is a statistically normal but not associated with healthy or desirable.
Conversely high IQ is statistically abnormal, but may well be regarded as highly desirable. Many rare behaviors or characteristics e.
Some characteristics are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite frequent.
Who decides what is statistically rare and how do they decide? For example, if an IQ of 70 is the cut-off point, how can we justify saying someone with 69 is abnormal, and someone with 70 normal? This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case.
Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives, and mental disorders such as depression are actually very statistically common.
Violation of Social Norms Under this definition, a person's thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it violates the unwritten rules about what is expected or acceptable behavior in a particular social group. Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened or uncomfortable.
Every culture has certain standards for acceptable behavior, or socially acceptable norms. Norms are expected ways of behaving in a society according to the majority and those members of a society who do not think and behave like everyone else break these norms so are often defined as abnormal.
There are a number of influences on social norms that need to be taken into account when considering the social norms definition: Culture Different cultures and subcultures are going to have different social norms.
For example, it is common in Southern Europe to stand much closer to strangers than in the UK. Voice pitch and volume, touching, direction of gaze and acceptable subjects for discussion have all been found to vary between cultures.
Context and Situation At any one time, a type of behaviour might be considered normal whereas another time the same behaviour could be abnormal, depending on both context and situation. For example, wearing a chicken suit in the street for a charity event would seem normal, but wearing a chicken suit for everyday activities such as shopping or going to church, it would be socially abnormal.
Historical Context Time must also be taken into account, as what is considered abnormal at one time in one culture may be normal another time, even in the same culture. For example, one hundred years ago, pregnancy outside of marriage was considered a sign of mental illness and some women were institutionalised, whereas now this is not the case Age and Gender Different people can behave in the same way and for some will be normal and others abnormal, depending on age and gender and sometimes other factors.
For example, a man wearing a dress and high heels may be considered socially abnormal as society would not expect it, whereas this is expected of women With this definition, it is necessary to consider: The most obvious problem with defining abnormality using social norms is that there is no universal agreement over social norms.
Social norms are culturally specific - they can differ significantly from one generation to the next and between different ethnic, regional and socio-economic groups. In some societies, such as the Zulu for example, hallucinations and screaming in the street are regarded as normal behavior.
Social norms also exist within a time frame, and therefore change over time.
Behavior that was once seen as abnormal may, given time, become acceptable and vice versa. For example drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen as socially unacceptable whereas homosexuality has gone the other way.Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 7e - Research in Abnormal Psychology Chapter 2 Handouts Research in Abnormal Psychology Research is the systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view.
Worksheets Chapter 1 - Research methodology Chapter 3 - The cognitive level of analysis Worksheet Example answer to short answer question 3 | | Worksheet 3 Chapter 5 - Abnormal psychology Worksheet The causes and effects of stigma | | Worksheet Study Flashcards On Exam 1 Material Chapters for Abnormal Psychology at tranceformingnlp.com Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more.
tranceformingnlp.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!/5(1). She is on the editorial board of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Emotion, Applied and Preventive Psychology, Chapter 3: Diagnosis and Assessment Chapter 4: Research Methods in Psychopathology Applied and Preventive Psychology, and Psychological Science in the Public Interest, and was formerly an Associate Editor for .
For courses in Abnormal Psychology while still maintaining a comprehensive and balanced biopsychosocial approach to understanding abnormal behavior. Chapter 3 offers a new and more accessible description of why correlation does not equal causation — and what does.
Butcher Abnormal Psychology Summary Ch 1 to 9 This book used the DSM-V. This is a summary of chapter 1 to 9. Because there are different versions of the 16th ed book (which contain a different order of chapters), I have listed the titles of the chapters here.