Get The Discount Getting started with your own abstract example Now that we know that all good examples of abstracts are, in fact, a precise but brief summary of your whole paper, it becomes pretty obvious that you cannot start working on an abstract until the paper is written - not unless you have a very detailed outline you plan to stick to in your work.
Print The sample abstract that follows is a solid model written for a class in mineral policy analysis. Given the pre-determined rhetorical context, no time is wasted, and paragraphs are kept both short and detailed.
She gives a full paragraph to her commentary, even noting how the author might have calculated costs differently to achieve a different outcome.
Such detail and commentary show us that the writer both understands her material and can think effectively about it. Click here to open a sample descriptive abstract within this page. Hall, in Energy Policy v. Included in the NES are policies that remove restrictions on oil production and restrictions on the construction of nuclear power.
This paper attempts to quantify the costs associated with spending on oil imports as related to national security and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve SPR. Energy security is measured by the size of U.
The consequence of this is that oil prices can be manipulated to harm the U. Oil price shocks or supply disruptions instigated by OPEC cause recessions by lowering output, raising prices, and lowering real wages.
These effects are determined by applying the Granger causality tests. A benefit of a market-driven price determination system is that prices rise as depletable resources fall, implying increased scarcity.
This rise in price gives an incentive to produce substitutes as well as reduce consumption of oil. There is a large divergence between the social cost of energy and the price because of environmental externalities associated with conventional energy sources.
However, misplaced investments based on such a policy have implications for many years. Hall concludes that the policies reflected in the NES will result in gross economic inefficiency.
I believe that there should be more of an analysis concerning how varying oil prices can affect the costs associated with oil import spending. This would show how vulnerable oil import spending is relative to price changes.
Although Hall mentions the opportunity cost of interest that could have been earned had the amount spent been invested, he does not attempt to quantify what that amount is. I would attempt to calculate these costs using various interest rates.
I also feel that he should calculate the inventory holding cost, and I am also curious to know what the cost of oil deterioration is and if there are transportation costs involved. These additional costs could be very significant in adding to the costs that Hall has already predicted.Abstract for a paper in APA style is just one of the new sections students will have to master sooner or later.
Still, before you start googling for examples of abstract online, you might want to consider whether you need one and what features account for a good example abstract. How to Write an Abstract in APA Make sure you have a page header. The page header, also known as the "running head," should be Use standard font.
Unless your instructor states otherwise, you should use point Times New Roman Double-space the text. All the text on your abstract should be double-spaced.
Center the word "Abstract" at the top of the. Types of Abstracts • Typical abstract –Written after the research and the paper have been completed.
–Consists of items easily identified in the paper and written into abstract form. • Promissory abstract –The major finding and results will not be included, or will be included as a prediction. 10 page research paper apa format example abstract designer.
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How to Write an Abstract in APA: 14 Steps (with Pictures). Make sure that you analyze the presented ideas to see if they have a right organization and indicate this in your APA format article critique. This will assist you in the evaluation of the writing .