The Evolution of Women in Film Timeline created by cabreraga Mar 31, "New Womanhood" The idea of more independent female characters began to enter the literary field.
The economy of the period relied heavily on so-called "sex-typed" work, or work that employers typically assigned to one sex or the other.
And the work most directly associated with males, especially manufacturing in heavy industries like steel production, faced the deepest levels of lay-offs during the Great Depression.
Women primarily worked in service industries, and these jobs tended to continue during the s. Clerical workers, teachers, nurses, telephone operators, and domestics largely found work.
In many instances, employers lowered pay scales for women workers, or even, in the case of teachers, failed to pay their workers on time. In many Great Depression families, women were the only breadwinners.
Inapproximately Byapproximately 13 million women worked for wages outside the home. Critics, over-looking the sex-typing of most work opportunities for women, lambasted laboring women for robbing men of much-needed jobs.
Federal law stood consistently with this conservative position regarding women workers. Laws in effect between and made it illegal for more than one person per family to find employment within the federal civil service.
Despite the protestations of Eleanor Rooseveltthe New Deal program the Civilian Conservation Corpsdeveloped inhad a formal policy against hiring women. Many New Deal job programs cast women in traditional housekeeping roles. FERA work relief projects employed women in producing such goods as canned foods, clothes, and mattresses for distribution to needy families.
Women were employed as housekeeping aides to families in need of household help. The housekeeping aides project kept to traditional racial stereotypes as well as gendered ones, as most of its employees were African-American women.
Other federal agencies paid women much less than men or gave preferences to male job seekers over female ones. Women of minority groups faced particular difficulties. Employers preferred white men, and then white women, over black or Hispanic women in most instances.
Relegated to domestic work and farm work through centuries of racism and misogyny in the job market, most African-American women found themselves left out of new laws passed to ensure worker safety.
The Fair Labor Standards Act ofwith its minimum wage and maximum hour provisions, did not apply to domestic or farm workers. Given the pressures of the economy, many women—white and black—were willing to work in domestic positions, but fewer households had the extra income to hire help.
Given that those seeking employment were most often black and given the low wages one would earn in such arrangements, the process and the area of town associated with it became known colloquially as a "slave market.
Women in professional careers lost gains made in earlier, more stable periods. Fewer women found positions in business in the Great Depression than in the s. Losing ground in the traditional male sphere, some men also entered into jobs heretofore relegated to women.
This trend occurred even in the very female bastion of teaching. The teaching profession grew slightly less female during the Great Depression; women had constituted 85 percent of teachers inbut by they constituted only 78 percent.
Frances Perkins became the first female member of a presidential cabinet when she assumed the post of Secretary of Labor in Eleanor Rooseveltfirst lady from tofought the public policies when it came to women on several fronts and led Franklin D.
Eleanor Roosevelt did, however, provide some moral support to American women in the troubled s. Her newspaper column, "My Day," in national periodicals reached an eager audience. Although Eleanor Roosevelt was the mother of five children, the first lady was nonetheless not known for her housewifery skills initially.
Yet during the Depression Eleanor Roosevelt inspired less-famous Americans with her earnest example, as when she served Franklin Roosevelt seven-cent meals in the White House.
Women continued to supervise the feeding and clothing of their families during the period but needed increased creativity to complete these tasks. For instance, many women opted to take in the laundry of others for a fee. Even with these creative choices, malnutrition and disease became the results of extended poverty for some families.
Relations between husbands and wives grew strained because of financial insecurity. Tight budgets in families led to the end of simple pleasures like leisure-time activities and further added to stress.
The rate of husbands deserting their families rose during the period. Couples delayed marriages or even decided not to marry at all given the financial constraints of setting up new households. Childbearing rates decreased, and more couples utilized contraception to limit family size.
Extended families, including multiple generations, also decided to share housing to cut costs. Already waning during the s, feminist sentiments faltered further during the Great Depression due to the pressing economic concerns. The momentum of feminism would not be rediscovered until the late s.The Great Depression affected men and women in drastically different ways.
Back in the ’s there were jobs men didn’t do and jobs women didn’t do. The work that was typically given to . Critical Analysis: Business, the Great Depression, and the New Deal Given the primary role that the private for-profit market plays in American social welfare, the Great Depression represented the greatest failure of the business sector in American history.
The greatest economic calamity in the history of the United States occurred in the third decade of the twentieth century. When the stock market crashed in and the economy plummeted over the next few years, the nation sunk into the most pervasive depression in American history.
No one escaped the suffering that the Great . WOMEN, IMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON. The Great Depression affected women and men in quite different ways.
The economy of the period relied heavily on so-called "sex-typed" work, or work that employers typically assigned to one sex or the other. Womens Role In the Great Depression Racial Stereotyping The 's was hard on single, divorced, or widowed women, but was harder on women who were not white.
Women of color in the North suffered an astounding % unemployment, while % of white women were without work. Some researchers have surmised that the disorder may have evolutionary roots, in the same way that others suggest evolutionary contributions to schizophrenia, sickle cell anemia and other disorders.
Psychology and psychiatry have not generally embraced evolutionary explanations for behaviors, and the proposed explanations for the .